by: Dr Mustafa Kalhoro

There are many cities on the earth which have their own glorious position in the map of the world. Baghdad is one of them. It was erected in 145 Hijri/ 762 AD; in the period in office of the caliph Abu Jaffar Abdullah al-Mansoor Abbasi, on the west bank of the Tigris. Its construction symbolizes a milestone in the history of world cities, Islamic civilization and monuments of Abbasids in side the globe. Baghdad had a distinguished position in the political and intellectual proceedings/ events that took place in the Arab Islamic world in particular and in the whole world in general.

Simultaneously, the Baghdad was called with various names as Darus Salam, The Round City and Al Mansoor City due to reasons as names show itself.

It was built in a spherical way with four gates which were named as Sham (Syria) Gate, Khurasan (Iran) Gate, Basra Gate and Kufa Gate. It was fortified by a peripheral wall, but it developed more and more so that the building extended to its western and eastern parts, including al-Muaadam Gate, Shumasiya and al-Mukhram.

Gradually, colossal mosques, Madarsas, public houses, pompous palaces, sky-scraping buildings, hotels, garrisons, business centres, banks, schools, colleges and universities were built. It became thus an academic centre and an encouragement for students and scholars from all over the world.

As every rise has a fall, so Baghdad’s brightness gradually became dim and dark in the periods of Tatars (in 656 Hijri accordingly 1258 AD; Halaqoo Khan marched into), the Mongols (invasion by Tamerlane in 795 Hijri). More over, it was invaded by al-Jalaairiyins, Safwians, the Ottomans and in recent past by Americans to boot. Its historical monuments witness greatness of this city of Abbasids.